Vitamin D3 is an effective skin protective substance to prevent photoaging. Liposomes were used as a carrier to deliver vitamin D3 to improve the stability and to enhance the treatment effect of vitamin D3. The stability of vitamin D3 liposomes, average cumulative penetration, and retention of vitamin D3 in the skin were then evaluated and compared with free vitamin D3. Finally, the treatment effect of vitamin D3 liposomes in a rat photoaging model was appraised and Haematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess the histology changes of the skin after vitamin D3 liposome treatment. The results indicated that liposomes could significantly improve the stability of vitamin D3. The average skin retention of vitamin D3 liposomes was 1.65 times that of the vitamin D3 solution. Vitamin D3 liposomes could repair the surface morphology of skin in the photoaging model and promote the production of new collagen fibers. Vitamin D3 liposomes as a potential skin care agent could significantly improve skin appearance and repair damage in the histology of photoaging.